Given the dispersed nature of scientific research and the variety of tools and processes required by scientists in different fields and locations, a federated environment requires a similarly decentralized business model to support the technical environment that will be developed. The development of novel capabilities, long-term storage/maintenance of data resources and fixed cost capabilities are likely to be provided using direct payments to organisations setting up nodes in the EOSC. By contrast, numerous research activities by individual investigators may be supported via EOSC vouchers. Nodes in the EOSC will have to be able to engage with the business model. This will probably imply a business arrangement with the brokers set up by funding agencies in order to accept these vouchers as payment.